Adj. (1) unresolved, contested or contested, in particular on a question of law which has not been the subject of any court decision. 2) a subject that has only academic interest. The normal human gestation period of 266 days is so short that the pregnancy ends before the usual appeal process is completed. If this dismissal renders a case contentious, pregnancy-related disputes will rarely survive well beyond the litigation stage, and the appeal will effectively be dismissed. Our law should not be that rigid. In the U.S. federal court system, a contentious case must be dismissed because the jurisdiction of federal courts is limited by the Constitution. Indeed, Article Three of the U.S. Constitution limits the jurisdiction of all federal courts to “cases and controversies.” Therefore, a civil action or appeal in which the court`s decision does not affect the rights of the parties is not normally within the jurisdiction of the court to decide, unless it falls within one of the recognized exceptions. “In this case, if the court were to conclude that the EIA is insufficient or that the decision to build along the D-1 road is arbitrary and capricious, the agency would have to correct the decision-making process and could ultimately be forced to remove the road from that road. It is therefore clear that this case represents a lively controversy with concrete facts and parties with conflicting interests. The construction of the towers did not make the case hypothetical or abstract – the towers still run through landowners` fields, constantly clogging their irrigation systems – and this court has the power to decide whether they are allowed to remain or whether they must be removed.
If the fact that the towers were built and operational was enough to make the case unjusticiable, as the dissent notes, then the BPA (and all similar entities) could simply ignore NEPA`s requirements, build its structures before a case goes to court, and then hide behind the doctrine of notionality. Such a result is unacceptable. : 591 MOOT, English law. A term used in court inns and referring to the imaginary business practice that young lawyers and students used to conduct at certain times in order to be better able to defend their clients` cases through this practice. A contentious issue has not yet been resolved. A classic example of such a case is DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974). The applicant was a student who had been refused admission to law school and who had subsequently been admitted provisionally during the lis pendens. Given that the student was expected to graduate in a few months at the time of the decision, and that the law school could not take any action to prevent this, the court ruled that a decision on its part would not affect the student`s rights. Consequently, the action was dismissed as devoid of purpose.
A point or question related to a legal case that generally has no practical significance or relevance to the case. A disputed point is one that cannot be resolved by the judge, that is not disputed by any party or that is resolved amicably. U.S. state courts are not subject to limitations on their jurisdiction under Article III, and some state courts are authorized by their local constitutions and laws to give advisory opinions in contentious cases where precedent setting is desirable. You can also define exceptions to the doctrine.  For example, in some state courts, prosecutors can appeal after a defendant has been acquitted: although the Court of Appeal cannot overturn an acquittal for double jeopardy, it can decide whether a trial court`s decision on a particular issue during the trial was wrong. This opinion will then be binding on future cases brought before the courts of that State. There are four main exceptions to this rule of notionality. These are cases of “wilful omission” on the part of the respondent; issues that have secondary or collateral legal consequences; questions that are “reproducible but not subject to review”; and class action issues where the designated party no longer represents the class. If a defendant acts unlawfully but ceases this behavior as soon as a legal action has been threatened or initiated, the court will still not consider this correction to be moot. Obviously, one party could stop acting inappropriately, just long enough to dismiss the case, and then resume the inappropriate behaviour.
In Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc., 528 U.S. 167 (2000), for example, the Supreme Court held that an industrial polluter subject to various civil deterrent penalties could not claim that the case was moot even if the polluter had stopped the pollution and closed the plant responsible for the pollution. The court noted that as long as the polluter retained its licence to operate such a plant, it could open similar operations elsewhere if it was not deterred by the requested sanctions. The court cited Southern Pacific Terminal Co. v. ICC, 219 U.S. 498 (1911), which had held that a case was not contentious if it constituted a matter that “may be repeated but beyond scrutiny.” Perhaps in response to the increasing workload at all levels of the judiciary, the Supreme Court and other U.S.
courts have recently tended to interpret this exception quite narrowly. [ref. The construction of a project without complying with the legal provisions cannot be used to challenge a court. For example, when an Environmental Impact Statement (EIA) was challenged, the completion of project construction could not be used to circumvent compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as stated by the 9th Circuit Court: “The obvious reality of life is that most criminal convictions actually have negative legal collateral consequences. The mere possibility that this is the case is enough to prevent criminal proceedings from ending ignominiously in the limbo of the dispute. Sibron vs. New York. Many cases fall under the doctrine of “repeatability”; However, since a recourse procedure is available in most cases, the exception to the declaration of no basis did not apply to such cases. In Memphis Light, Gas & Water Div.
Craft, 436 U. pp. 1, 8–9 (1978), the court found that claims for damages protected cases from litigation.  Moot is derived from gemÅt, an old English name for a court court. Originally, the theoretical trial referred either to the court itself or to an argument that could be discussed by one of them. By the 16th century, the legal role of judicial pleadings had diminished, and the only remnants of them were mock courts, mock university courts where law students could hear hypothetical cases for practice. At the time, the term “pleading” was used as a synonym for debatable, but since student cases in moot courts were merely theoretical exercises, the word was given the additional meaning of “devoid of practical meaning.” Some commentators still disapprove of the use of the competition as “purely academic”, but most editors now accept both meanings as standard. A court will allow a case to proceed if that is how people are often confronted with a particular situation, but it is unlikely that they will be able to provide them with a remedy in the time it takes for the court system to resolve their situation. The most frequently cited example is Roe v. 1973 before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), challenging a Texas law that prohibited abortion in most circumstances. The State argued that the case was contentious because Plaintiff Roe was no longer pregnant at the time of the hearing. As Justice Blackmun wrote in the majority opinion: In the United States legal system, an issue is contentious when other legal proceedings involving it cannot have any effect or events have taken it outside the scope of the law. As a result, the issue has been stripped of its practical significance or rendered purely academic. The development of this word in the United States stems from the practice of moot courts, where hypothetical or fictitious cases have been pleaded as part of legal education. These purely academic issues have led US courts to characterize as “contentious” cases in which changing circumstances rendered an ineffective judgment. The doctrine can be compared to the doctrine of maturity, another rule established by judges that judges should not rule on cases based solely on expected disputes or hypothetical facts.
Similar doctrines prevent U.S. federal courts from issuing advisory opinions.  In contrast, in McCorvey v. Hill, 2004, the case was not pursued because it was controversial, inadmissible and timeless.  If a class action is commenced in which a named plaintiff actually represents the interests of many others, the matter does not lapse, even if the named plaintiff is no longer a member of the class seeking relief. In Sosna v. Iowa, 419 U.S. 393 (1975), the plaintiff represented a group challenging an Iowa law that required people to reside there for one year before divorcing in Iowa courts. The Supreme Court held that although the plaintiff had successfully divorced in another state, her lawyers could continue to competently represent the interests of the other class members. The terms theoretical and theoretical are used in both English and American law, although with different meanings. The term theoretical point refers (in American English) to a topic that is not relevant to a topic being discussed, or (in British English) a controversial topic.